The following is a guest post by Grace Moran, Graduate Web Archiving Assistant – Library Administration, University of Illinois Library
Websites are fleeting; finding a way to preserve them and ensure accessibility for end-users is one of the greatest challenges facing record-keeping institutions today. The window for capturing a website is minute, with many pages disappearing within 2-4 years of their creation (See Ben-David, “2014 Not Found,” in the further reading list). This two-part guest blog series documents my efforts over this academic year to develop, standardize, and envision a future for the University of Illinois web archives collections through our subscription to Archive-It. This first post will explore the deeply related issues of metadata and access for web archives, as well as how they influence my proposal for the future of our web collections.
About me. I am a graduate student getting my MS in Library & Information Sciences at the University of Illinois, graduating this May. I have been working for my supervisor, Dr. Chris Prom (Associate Dean, Office of Digital Strategies) since the Spring semester of my senior year of my bachelor’s. Last year, he gave me the option of transitioning over from digital special collections and workflows and focusing on our young web-archiving program. This opportunity has taught me so much, and I want to share that with others.
Now, for a bit of background on the program. The University of Illinois has been capturing web pages through Archive-It since 2015, but the program itself has been inconsistent in its stewardship. This year, my charge is the evaluation of the status of the University of Illinois subscription to Archive-It and the creation of a plan for its continued success. The culmination of the role will be a final report outlining my accomplishments for the year, evaluating programmatic needs for a web-archiving program, conversations I have had with stakeholders in the program, and recommendations for the future of web archiving at the University of Illinois. The challenges facing a burgeoning web-archiving program are numerous and varied, ranging from policy to accessibility. Preferably, by the end of the year, I will have identified opportunities for growth and layout a plan for the future, ideally making a case for a dedicated web-archiving position when the budget allows. With 5 TB of data archived since 2015, the care and keeping of these collections is of utmost importance; the time invested by the University of Illinois Library must not be wasted.
My experience thus far has shown me that managing a web archive is no small feat. (Is this an obvious statement? Yes, but that doesn’t make it any less true.) Two of the most urgent issues I have seen are metadata and access; it is no secret that these two go hand-in-hand. The debate around metadata is not new. The OCLC Research Library Partnership Metadata Working Group identified this same problem in their 2017 report “Developing Web Archiving Metadata Best Practices to Meet User Needs” (in the further reading list below). As it stands now, we don’t have a standard for documenting archived websites. Standards such as DACS and MARC don’t fully account for the unique nature of websites, so some institutions have adopted a hybrid approach, using both archival and bibliographic metadata. The question remains whether or not a hybrid approach is sufficient. Is it necessary to create a new standard? Would this over-complicate things?
On the Archive-It platform, there are three possible levels of metadata:
Our collections at the University of Illinois tend to have collection-level and seed-level metadata. This is due to a couple of factors. First, the labor of editing seed metadata takes enough hours without also creating document metadata; law of diminishing returns. Second, what is/isn’t a document is a bit difficult to understand on the Archive-It platform, making it unclear what benefit there is in creating document-level metadata. For now, the goal is to make collection- and seed-level metadata consistent across collections and make it standard practice to describe websites when they are crawled.
Deeply tied into the issue of metadata is that of access; how do we make sure that content reaches end-users? If a tree falls in the forest…..no I’m not going to finish that; too cliché. You get the idea. My point is this: taking the time to preserve digital materials is nearly meaningless if no one gets to enjoy the fruits of the labor.
What does access look like for University of Illinois web collections? Right now, an end-user would have to navigate to the public-facing Archive-It website and either search “University of Illinois” or stumble across one of our collections because of a keyword search. We are not in any way alone in this; institutions all over are struggling with the idea of making collections searchable.
So what’s the solution? How do we implement an access system without relying on end-users to know we participate in web archiving and have collections on a website referenced nowhere in our systems? In my final report to the library, I am going to recommend both short- and long-term solutions. Short-term, Archive-It allows subscribers to add a search bar to their discovery systems allowing them to search through their Archive-It collections. This simple, elegant, and quick solution would make a significant difference for researchers. A long-term, more involved solution would be to index all of our pages locally and work to allow full-text search of collections. In the era of Google, our users are used to full-text search; discovery systems should fit that behavior.
If you are working with web archives, I hope that something in this post resonated with you. I hope that institutions will begin to collaborate more and find standard solutions so we can truly harness this technology to our advantage.
In my next blog post a month from now, I’ll talk about the more human side of things: policy and personnel. I also want to share a bit about our efforts to document COVID-19 at the University of Illinois. Stay safe, stay healthy, and stay tuned!
- Belovari, S. (2017). Historians and web archives. Archivaria, 83(1), 59-79.
- Ben-David, A. (2019). 2014 not found: a cross-platform approach to retrospective web archiving. Internet Histories, 3(3-4), 316-342.
- Bragg, M., & Hanna, K. (2013). The web archiving life cycle model. Archive-It), https://archive-it. org/static/files/archiveit_life_cycle_ model. pdf (visited 14.2. 14).
- Condill, K. (2017). The Online Media Environment of the North Caucasus: Issues of Preservation and Accessibility in a Zone of Political and Ideological Conflict. Preservation, Digital Technology & Culture, 45(4), 166.
- Costa, M., Gomes, D., & Silva, M. J. (2017). The evolution of web archiving. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 18(3), 191-205.
- Dooley, J. M., & Bowers, K. (2018). Descriptive metadata for web archiving: Recommendations of the OCLC research library partnership web archiving metadata working group. OCLC Research.
- Dooley, J. M., Farrell, K. S., Kim, T., & Venlet, J. (2018). “Descriptive Metadata for Web Archiving: Literature Review of User Needs. OCLC Research.
- Dooley, J. M., Farrell, K. S., Kim, T., & Venlet, J. (2017). Developing web archiving metadata best practices to meet user needs. Journal of Western Archives, 8(2), 5.
- Dooley, J., Samouelian, M (2018). Descriptive Metadata for Web Archiving: Review of Harvesting Tools. OCLC Research.
- Farag, M. M., Lee, S., & Fox, E. A. (2018). Focused crawler for events. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 19(1), 3-19.
- Graham, P. M. (2017). Guest Editorial: Reflections on the Ethics of Web Archiving. Journal of Archival Organization, 14(3-4): 103-110.
- Grotke, A. (2011). Web Archiving at the Library of Congress. Computers in Libraries, 31(10), 15-19.
- Jones, Gina M. and Neubert, Michael (2017) “Using RSS to Improve Web Harvest Results for News Web Sites,” Journal of Western Archives: Vol. 8 : Iss. 2 , Article 3.
- Littman, J., Chudnov, D., Kerchner, D., Peterson, C., Tan, Y., Trent, R., … & Wrubel, L. (2018). API-based social media collecting as a form of web archiving. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 19(1), 21-38.
- Maemura, E., Worby, N., Milligan, I., & Becker, C. (2018). If these crawls could talk: Studying and documenting web archives provenance. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 69(10), 1223-1233.
- Masanès, J. (2005). Web archiving methods and approaches: A comparative study. Library trends, 54(1), 72-90.
- Pennock, Maureen (2013, March). Web-Archiving: DPC Technology Watch Report. Digital Preservation Coalition.
- Summers, E. (2020). Appraisal Talk in Web Archives. Archivaria, 89(1), 70-102.
- Thomson, Sara Day (2016, February). Preserving Social Media: DPC Technology Watch Report. Digital Preservation Coalition.
- Weber, M. (2017). The tumultuous history of news on the web. In Brügger N. & Schroeder R. (Eds.), The Web as History: Using Web Archives to Understand the Past and the Present (pp. 83-100). London: UCL Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1mtz55k.10
- Webster, Peter (2020). How Researchers use the Archived Web: DPC Technology Watch Guidance Note. Digital Preservation Coalition.
- Wiedeman, Gregory (2019) “Describing Web Archives: A Computer-Assisted Approach,” Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies: Vol. 6, Article 31. https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/jcas/vol6/iss1/31.