Coffee Chat Recap: U.S. Federal Government Web Archiving

By Susan Paterson, SAA Web Archiving Section Vice-Chair and liaison librarian at Koerner Library at the University of British Columbia Vancouver.

The Web Archiving Section hosted its first coffee chat of the year on March 29, 2022. Melissa Wertheimer, Chair of the Web Archiving Section, led a panel discussion on US Federal Government web archiving activities. We were joined by web archiving experts from the National Library of Medicine, Government Publishing Office, the Smithsonian and the Library of Congress. Topics ranged from content curation, collaboration amongst agencies, staffing, workflow models, and successes and challenges, as well as the impact of COVID-19 on their collecting activities.

The coffee chat recording is available to viewers until summer 2022.

National Library of Medicine – History of Medicine Division, Digital Manuscripts Program

The session began with an informative presentation by Christie Moffatt, Manager of the Digital Manuscripts Program, History of Medicine Division at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Christie described NLM’s approach to web collecting, an activity which began in 2009 with their Health and Medical Blog Collection. Christie provided an overview of the NLM web archive collections, and the collection development policies that guide their web collecting.

Christie noted that thematic and events based collections have grown and are a key component to their collection building. The Global Health Events Web Archive collection, one of their largest, began in 2015 with the Ebola outbreak. With the World Health Organization’s announcement of a global health pandemic in January 2020, NLM started work on a COVID-19 pandemic collection. Interestingly, this specific designation of a global health emergency is worked into their collection development policy and the NLM takes responsibility for building a web archive once this designation is made. An aim of the COVID-19 collection is to ensure a diversity of perspectives on both the impact and the response to the pandemic are archived. Tools and communication used for outreach during the pandemic (i.e. TikTok, Twitter) as well as personal narratives of the pandemic make up part of the collection which is the Library’s largest collection with 3.5 FTES working on the project. The National Library of Medicine’s Archive It website can be explored here.

Government Publishing Office

Dory Bower, Archives Specialist at the Government Publishing Office (GPO) provided an overview of GPO’s web archiving activities and explained how legislation Title 44 of the U.S. Code is the mandate for Public Printing and Documents. Specifically, Chapter 19 discusses the Depository Library Program. Federal agencies should be distributing and publishing their documents through the GPO. If a federal agency is not doing so, the Superintendent of Documents should be notified. Unfortunately, with born digital publications and publishing directly onto websites this is not happening and material is being missed. GPO joined the Archive-it community in 2012 and since then they have been using web archiving to help fill this gap.

The web archive is part of the overall GPO Digital Collection Development Plan. For material to be part of the GPO collection, it must be federally funded and be within the scope of the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP). GPO is also focusing on collections of interest geared towards women, tribal libraries, and Native American communities, just to name a few. GPO maintains over 213 collections in Archive-it, making up 38.3 TB of data and consisting of over 392 million urls. You can explore the Federal Depository Library Program Web Archive here.

Smithsonian Institution – Libraries and Archives

Lynda Schmitz Fuhrig, Digital Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution Libraries and Archives, presented next. Lynda provided a fascinating overview of the web archiving work that’s being done at the Smithsonian, which celebrated its 175th anniversary in 2021.

The Libraries and Archives of the Smithsonian is the official repository and record keeper for the Smithsonian. Their responsibilities include sharing, collecting, and preserving Smithsonian activities and output which includes documenting its unique web presence, which launched in 1995. They now have nearly 400 public websites and blogs and a very active social media presence covering Twitter, Instagram, Flickr, and YouTube – just to name a few.

Like the National Library of Medicine, the Smithsonian has documented the impacts and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on America. For example, beginning in March 2020, more focused and frequent crawls were necessary to document the altered scheduling of the closing and reopening of the Museums and the Zoo. Additionally, the closure of museums created a need for an increased digital presence, and the Smithsonian launched several new websites and initiatives, including Care Package, Vaccines & US and Our Shared Future.

Audience members were particularly interested in their web and social media workflows and tools. Along with Conifer and Browsertrix, the Smithsonian uses netyltic, which was developed by the Social Media Lab at Ryerson University to collect Smithsonian hashtags and accounts.

They are one of the few organizations that download the WARCS from Archive-it. They developed an in-house tool called WARC Retriever which they hope to release on Github later this year. Lynda’s summation was poignant: “The Smithsonian web collections will continue to tell the history and stories of the Smithsonian.” You can explore the Smithsonian Archive-it page here.

Library of Congress – Web Archiving Program

To round out the panel, Meghan Lyon and Lauren Baker, Digital Collection Specialists from the Library of Congress (LOC) Web Archiving Program, provided an overview of the activities at LOC. The Web Archiving Program began in 2000 and is part of the Library’s Digital Content Management Section.

The LOC web archives consist of 3PB of data organized into 174 collections, 75 of which are active collections. Like many of the other speakers, the Web Archiving Team collaborates frequently on web archive collections, relying on the contributions of collaborators around the Library. The Collection Development Office helps guide collection initiatives, and various committees review subject proposals and select content to archive and determine collection focus. LOC comprehensively collects content from Legislative Branch Agencies and U.S. House and Senate offices and committees. They collect content about U.S. national elections as well as managing other events based and thematic collections.

Megan and Lauren addressed the issue of permission and web archiving. Their permissions policy is determined by the Office of the General Counsel, which is based on Copyright Law. Permission requests must be sent to site owners for anything selected for web archiving. There are two permission requests: a permission to crawl, and permission to display based on the country of publication and the category of the entity. You can explore the LOC Web Archiving Program website here.

The panel closed out the session by discussing how they became interested in web archiving and how their careers started in the field. Their initial experiences ranged from practicums to learning on the job. The remainder of the conversation also included the topics of trends, the and future of web archiving tools – including what improvements people hope for and imagining better tools for harvesting and user awareness. The session was well attended with 181 registrants and over 80 attendees. Thank you to everyone who presented and who attended for such an engaging hour. Stay tuned for our next coffee chat, which will be in May!

Coffee Chat Recap: Accessibility and Web Archiving

By: Kiera Sullivan and Lydia Tang

The Web Archiving and Accessibility & Disability sections co-hosted an engaging coffee chat about accessibility and web archiving on May 19, 2021. Dr. Lydia Tang, Immediate Past Chair of A&DS, gave a talk on accessibility tools, accessible web design, and web archiving. Big thanks to Dr. Tang for her presentation (view her slides!), and also to everyone who attended, asked questions, and shared their thoughts.

Dr. Tang’s presentation highlighted the idea of designing accessibility from the very beginning. She pointed out that the way a website is designed will affect how a screen reader navigates the content. Consider the web content that we collect – or may one day collect – in our web archiving activities. How accessible are archived websites for screen readers? They are only as accessible as they were created – which has been an evolving concept for developers.  Can or should we attempt to remediate inaccessible archived websites? Further, how accessible are the platforms that we use to keep our web archives, and how about our own websites?

The good news is this is one wheel we do not need to reinvent. The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has published a series of web accessibility guidelines. The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) is an industry-standard that is continually being updated, and it is a tremendous resource for making web content accessible to all users. As archivists we cultivate expertise in preserving material and making it accessible, whatever the format. If web content is one of the formats we work with, perhaps it is a professional duty to learn to recognize the components of the websites with which we engage and which we collect. These guidelines are an excellent place to start. Additionally, there are a number of groups that work on building resources, training, and awareness of accessibility best practices, such as the DLF Digital Accessibility Working Group and the Society of American Archivists’ Accessibility & Disability Section.

Dr. Tang shared her go-to tool for evaluating web accessibility: the WAVE tool, which she uses regularly as a browser extension for Chrome. Using WAVE, she demonstrated how easy it is to analyze a website for automatically detected errors such as missing alt-text, contrast issues, and other under-the-hood issues that might not be apparent but could greatly impact the website experience for people using screen readers and other assistive technology. It certainly isn’t a catch-all but is at least a big first step. She also shared other tools and resources, including WebAIM’s Contrast Checker, and a variety of assistive tech programs to try out – see her slides for a list of these!

One powerful takeaway from the conversation was the idea that we need to encourage and facilitate a culture of accessibility in our workplaces. Accessibility should be a regular component of our usual discussions about workflows and projects. It means thinking about the tools and templates that we use, becoming familiar with their accessibility features, and improving our own use of them. Coffee chat attendees shared their ideas for how we can achieve this, including playing around with dark mode, high contrast mode, and color schemes on our websites. The discussion also included looking at a WARC file together and questioning whether WARCs preserve alt-text and other accessibility features of a website.  We wrapped up the hour by considering whether accessibility statements – incorporated in the Conditions Governing Access note or a similar note – should be a required element for descriptive standards.

Did you attend this coffee chat? Have any afterthoughts, questions, or key takeaways that you would like to share? Please feel free to drop your thoughts in the comment section of this post. Do you belong to an SAA section that might be interested in co-hosting a coffee chat with the Web Archiving section? Let us know!

What coffee chat conversations would YOU like to see the Web Archiving section take part in? Leave your suggestions in the comments or reach out to any of the steering committee members with your ideas!